Astaxanthin For Our Best Friends

Pets & Natural Astaxanthin

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

AstaReal®Astaxanthin For Dogs



We want the best for our best friend and as dogs too need physical activity, motivation, companionship and steady health as they grow, energy and health requirements an important part of their lives.

Energy and optimum nutritional requirements for a dog vary by breed, life stage, size, activity level. Nevertheless, all dogs need some type or form of physical activity and important health and nutritional ingredients to keep their health in check.

Lack of activity, inadequate nutrition and aging can lead to:

• Muscle and joint weakness

• Vision impairment

• Sluggish cognitive response

• Poor sleep quality and lethargy

• Lower immune response

Nutrition Solutions for Your Dog

To keep dogs healthy and sharp, quality dog food is important for providing adequate nutritional sources of protein, carbohydrates, fats/oils, fiber, minerals and vitamins. Dogs may also require supplemental nutrition in the form of additional vitamin E, probiotics, omega fatty acids, and antioxidants.

Parents of dogs may consider high quality supplemental nutrition as a preventative healthcare approach together with healthy diet and exercise. Often, dog parents prefer products containing natural and organic ingredients that are non-GMO, soy free, gluten free and which offer clean label ingredients that are traceable and easily identifiable. These days, products are specifically formulated for breed, size, activity level, and any special health needs such as immunity, joints, muscle and cognitive support.

The NASC (National Animal Supplement Council) and AAFCO (The Association of American Feed Control Officials) are the organizations that build and enforce the regulatory framework that guides pet and livestock food and supplement industries. AstaReal® Astaxanthin is recommended by NASC at 2mg/day for dogs 20 lbs or less, and may be found as a standalone supplement or in a formulation labeled for muscle/joint, energy, immunity, vision or cognitive function.

What is Natural Astaxanthin?

Nature’s most powerful antioxidant, natural Astaxanthin is 6000 times stronger than Vitamin C and 110 times stronger than vitamin E. Natural Astaxanthin is known to combat and neutralize excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) with its high singlet oxygen quenching capacity.

Excess production and accumulation of ROS is a result of lower production of the body’s natural antioxidants due to inadequate diet, illness, stress, inflammation and aging. Damage to the bilayer of the outer mitochondrial membrane which consists of lipids affects the functioning of the electron transport chain. Accumulation of ROS and damage to the outer membrane can in turn damage, the inner membrane of the mitochondria which is made up of protein, upsetting mitochondrial DNA function, important for normal cell function. Accumulation of ROS shows up as muscle damage or soreness, lack of energy, tiredness after sleeping and relayed response to stimuli especially after exertion.

Natural astaxanthin is a mitochondrial nutrient that works by boosting mitochondrial function and energy production. The structure of Astaxanthin is unlike other antioxidants because it fits in a way that can better cover the width of the mitochondria and provide protection from damaging free radicals produced by exercise, chronic inflammation and advanced age. In dogs, about 35-50% of Astaxanthin accumulates in the mitochondria, with the rest of astaxanthin helping to protect other sensitive membranes throughout the body. Protecting your dog from the wear and tear of free radicals helps to support healthy dogs, by promoting healthy energy levels, immunity, cognitive function, and vision throughout a dog’s lifetime.

Why AstaReal® Astaxanthin?

• AstaReal®Astaxanthin has a mild flavor that dogs love.

• There are 40 safety studies showing astaxanthin is a healthy choice for your dog.

• AstaReal® Astaxanthin is the only Astaxanthin certified by the NASC.

Intensive studies with dogs fed natural Astaxanthin have shown to reduce lipid bilayer damage, improve mitochondrial DNA and the overall functioning of the mitochondria, reduce muscle soreness and energy levels, overcoming lack of attentiveness and better cognitive responses, better vision and stronger immune response to inflammation in the body.

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Dog Joint Health

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Dog Joint Health and Astaxanthin



Dogs have 319 bones altogether, which are constantly being reabsorbed and regenerated throughout their lifetime. Bones are the framework on which the body is built. Joints connect bones and permit movement. A specialized type of connective tissue called the cartilage covers the ends of bones in a joint.

The synovial fluid in the joint capsule, allows the cartilage surfaces to move against one another without much resistance. The cartilage layer acts as a shock absorber that prevents the bones from rubbing against each other during movement and preventing friction.

Normal aging can cause water retention and fluid in the cartilage to decrease. The loss of cartilage tissue and repetitive use of the joints, irritates the joints and causes inflammation in the cartilage. Inflammation is the body’s response to injury, which becomes chronic with a buildup of oxidative stress, in other words accumulation of reactive oxygen species, leading to further cartilage degradation and loss in muscle function.

Thinning of cartilage and the friction between bones culminates in loss in strength of the surrounding muscles, joint misalignment and joint pain.

Joint problems are common in dogs and they suffer stiffness or lameness in joints such as hips, elbows and knees. Joint pain is a consequence of injury, disease or old age. Among the conditions that cause joint pain in dogs are hip dysplasia, osteoarthritis and old fractures.

Although dogs have a lot of energy, their exercise regimen is based on the breed, the capacity and growth of the bone structure and development. A proper exercise regimen promotes healthy distribution of weight which supports healthy joints, exercise also strengthens muscles around joints, providing support for agility and movement.

A proper exercise regimen, a good diet and antioxidants which help to relieve and fight inflammation could ease joint pain.

How Does Natural Astaxanthin Help Support Joints?

• Natural astaxanthin is the most powerful antioxidant and is known to lower oxidative stress by quenching free radical species, especially those produced in the mitochondria.

• NF-kB is a key modulator of inflammation. NF-kB activates the genes and cytokines that mediate inflammation. NF-kB when triggered causes joint pain and arthritis due to chronic inflammation. Natural astaxanthin lowers oxidative stress and fights inflammation by regulating NF-kB.

• Age decreases the natural antioxidant capacity of the body, thus accumulating oxidative stress. Decreased blood flow around joints and the muscles create strain and reduces mobility. Most often there is a shift in body posture which results in joint pain. Exercise plus natural astaxanthin, helps improve muscle strength and could consequently improve joint pain and joint health.

References

1. De Ceuninck F et.al, Drug Discov. Today, 2014

2. Gadjanski I et.al, Stem cell reviews, 2011

3. Jansen I et.al, J. Am. Geriatr. Soc., 2002

4. Chris C. Pinney, The complete veterinary guide, 2004

5. Kristen Mehus-Roe, Dog Bible, 2nd edition, 2009

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Muscle Health for Dogs

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Dog Muscular System and Astaxanthin



Like all mammals, dogs have a complex skeletal and muscular system which support both voluntary and involuntary movements. The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones making up the front and hind limbs, as well as the pelvis. The system is made up of bones, tendons, ligaments and joints and units of tissue that connect the skeletal system, skin and muscles.

The muscle anatomy of a dog consists of 3 main types of muscle tissue, smooth, skeletal and cardiac, each serving a different purpose of function. The various groups and types of muscles help in functioning, movement and flexibility.

The main function of the muscular system of a dog is to facilitate movement of limbs, head, neck and joints, the other function is to provide stability under pressure, due to their need for exercise or other activities like hunting.

Exercise helps to keep dogs healthy, agile and limber, helps to reduce digestive problems and constipation. A dog that doesn’t exercise enough has the risk of running into health issues like obesity, arthritis, hip dysplasia or even joint pain. Age, the breed, excess weight and hereditary defects could also be reasons for these health issues.

Exercise regimen of high endurance dogs such as hunting dogs is well understood to require immense amounts of energy. However, companion dogs or low endurance exercise dogs which are not intensely exercised also need constant attention regarding their diet, physiological parameters as well as a regular exercise regimen.

• Irregular or short bouts of intense exercise and movement of muscles increases the consumption of oxygen which increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscles, excess ROS overwhelms the endogenous antioxidants produced by the body. Free radical induced oxidative stress is a major factor in long term tissue and muscle degradation. Depending on the breed and type of dog, muscle degradation, muscle soreness and damage can vary.

• Biochemical parameters like serum enzymes AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and CK (plasma creatine kinase) increase with exercise and soreness which are an indication of muscle damage.

• Constant exercise and lack of proper diet has shown to decrease serum phosphorous and glucose levels.

How Does Natural Astaxanthin Help?

• Natural astaxanthin is nature’s most powerful antioxidant known to quench and lower the ROS produced in the body.

• Natural astaxanthin is known to reduce AST and CK particularly in mice animal models while other antioxidants in general are seen to reduce AST and CK levels in dogs.

• Natural astaxanthin assists in proper utilization of glucose as an energy source, it stops the muscles from switching over the anaerobic cycle, alleviating fatigue and soreness. Natural astaxanthin brings about better lipid metabolism increasing its use as an energy source and maximizes sustained energy improving endurance.

References

1. Huntingford et.al, Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 2014

2. Nestle - Monique Y. Sidebottom and Arleigh J. Reynolds, US Patent: 8034372, 2004

3. Chris C. Pinney, The complete veterinary guide, 2004

4. Kristen Mehus-Roe, Dog Bible, 2nd edition, 2009

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Pet Mitochondria Health

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Natural Astaxanthin Boosts Mitochondrial Function in Both Young and Geriatric Dogs



The mitochondria are the site for many biochemical reactions and it is here that the energy currency, the ATPs are produced both in young and aged alike. The mitochondria are popularly known as the powerhouse of the cell. Increased mitochondrial oxidative stress is one of the main reasons associated with aging and bringing about an early onset of decreased immune function leading to diseases. With age, the natural antioxidant capacity of the body reduces, resulting in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which result in mitochondrial dysfunction.

Excessive ROS and RNS can disrupt ATP production and destroy membrane lipids, proteins and mitochondrial DNA,thereby lowering the functioning of the mitochondria.

• The mitochondria take up 85% of the oxygen consumed by the cell, producing immense amounts of ROS. ROS are mostly produced in the complex III reaction of the electron transport chain, which occurs in the mitochondrial membrane. Excess accumulation of ROS can damage and change the mitochondrial membrane potential.

• Oxidative stress lowers the functioning of the mitochondria, affecting the amount of ATPs produced.

• The various chemical reactions that take place in the mitochondria produce with them ROS and RNS as by products. Increase in ROS and RNS in leukocyte mitochondria lowers immune function. Disruption of the immune levels causes oxidative stress and inflammatory damage.

• Age and accumulation of ROS bring about damage to the protein layer of the mitochondria. Damage to this layer, makes the mitochondrial DNA prone to oxidative attack. Maintaining the functioning of the mitochondrial DNA is important for normal cell function.

How Does Natural Astaxanthin Help?

In a study, where natural astaxanthin was fed as part of the diet to young Beagle dogs (~2.9 years) and geriatric Beagle dogs (~10 years).

It was found that 35-50% of astaxanthin in the cell localized in the mitochondria, this helps:

• An increase in ROS and RNS in the mitochondria that are quenched at the complex III reaction by natural astaxanthin in both young and geriatric dogs.

• The number of ATPs produced was increased in both young and geriatric dogs by 12-14%.

• Natural astaxanthin increased the leukocyte mitochondrial mass, decreasing mitochondrial oxidative stress and inflammatory damage. Reduction in the NO level, which is a direct indicator of inflammatory cell damage, was also noted.

• Natural astaxanthin inhibited mitochondrial DNA and protein layer damage.

Natural astaxanthin is the most powerful antioxidant known, to decrease the number of ROS and RNS in the mitochondria and reduce lipid peroxidation.

Natural astaxanthin modulates the functioning of the mitochondria in both young and geriatric dogs, helping to improve immunity, alleviating oxidative damage and improving cellular function.

References

1. Park, J. S et.al, Nutritional and Metabolism, 2010

2. Park, J. S et.al, J. Anim.Sci., 2013

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Pet Brain Health

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Cognitive Health in Dogs (Alertness, Visual, and Sleep)



It is estimated that in the United States alone, over 35% of all pets owned are geriatric. Dogs are generally considered geriatric when they reach 7 years of age, although this varies, depending on the breed. Besides breed, genetics, nutrition and environmental influences all ultimately affect the aging process of a dog. The overall care that a dog receives throughout its life will also have a great impact on the rate of aging.

Physical and Cognitive Challenges in Geriatric Dogs

Bone and joint challenges, muscular challenges, a weakened immune system are but a few of the challenges that occur along with aging in dogs. Visual, hearing, sense of smell, sleep disorder, cognitive dysfunction can be as, if not more challenging, than the physical ones.

Cognitive behavior in dogs is the ability to be alert and recognize what is familiar and what could be danger. Sleep disorder or insomnia, is disturbance of sleep induction or disturbance of sound sleep. Visual stress includes refractive or adjustment error, distorted vision and aging sight diseases such as glaucoma, cataract and dry eye to name a few.

Stress, disease, change in rhythm and aging suppresses the sensibility of a dog, delaying response. The ability to express emotions could also weaken. The environment and feeding conditions could also play a major role in these challenges.

Natural Astaxanthin Assists in Improving Cognitive Focus

Beagle dogs when fed natural astaxanthin showed an improvement in cognitive, visual and sleep disorders.

• 41% of dogs showed improved sensibility, an increase in perception and cognition.

• 34% of dogs showed improved visual sense. An increase in eye focus with the owner and an object and decreased eye mucus.

• 28% showed improvement in quality of sleep and alertness to strange sound during sleep.

References

1. Fuji Chemical Industries Ltd, Honda T and Takahashi J. US patent no 8,623,434- 2014.

2. Chris C. Pinney, The complete veterinary guide, 2004

3. Kristen Mehus-Roe, Dog Bible, 2nd edition, 2009

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Healthy Aging for Our Best Friends

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Natural Astaxanthin Supports Healthy Aging in Dogs.



With good care, dogs can live anywhere from 8 to 18 years. Breed, genetics, nutrition and environmental influences could ultimately affect the aging process of a dog. Standard practices that increase the length of a dog’s life include a good diet, regular exercise, good grooming and appropriate dietary supplement. Dogs are considered geriatric when they reach 7 years of age. The overall care that a dog receives during its young and adolescent years will impact the rate at which a dog ages.

As dogs age, they face physical challenges such as bone and joint issues, muscular challenges, a weakened immune system and cognitive challenges that may include vision challenges, hearing loss and cognitive dysfunction syndrome.

Addition of a natural antioxidant to the diet such as natural Astaxanthin could support healthy aging in dogs. The natural antioxidant capacity decreases with age, and the accumulation of oxidative stress results in mitochondrial dysfunction. AstaReal®Astaxanthin is the most powerful antioxidant, known to quench free radicals in the mitochondria. Functional mitochondria are essential for energy production and other chemicals reactions which are essential for the sustenance of a healthy body.

To understand how natural astaxanthin can support healthy aging of your dog, please follow the links below:

1) Cognitive health

2) Enhanced Mitochondrial Function

3) Muscle Health

4) Joint Health

5) Immune Health

6) Eye Health

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Astaxanthin & Pet Immunity

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Dog Immune System and Astaxanthin

The Immune System



The immune system is designed to protect the body against infectious invaders and eliminate any foreign matter or cells that try to gain entrance into the body. Without a functioning immune system, our dogs would fall prey to every hostile organism. Stress, poor nutrition, and hormonal fluctuations are some of the other factors which contribute to a weakened immune system.

The bone marrow, thymus, lymph nodes and the spleen are the organs of the immune system. The white blood cells, the neutrophils and the macrophages combat bacteria, viruses and fungal organisms. NK cells or natural killer cells are another set of cells which fight other antigens.

The body responds to antigens in 2 ways, either humoral or cell mediated. Humoral response is the response to pathogens circulating in the lymph or blood, while cell mediated response is in response to an infection in a cell, to certain protein markers which appear as a secondary response to infection.

The immune system keeps a check and balance as to when the body needs to gear up to fight and when the body is fit again. An enhanced immune system will help dogs to be healthy and respond to any form of antigens better.

How Does Natural Astaxanthin Help Keep Up the Workings of the Dog Immune System?

Studies with Beagle dogs fed natural astaxanthin as part of the diet show that natural astaxanthin upregulates immune response and improves functioning of the body. Natural astaxanthin enhanced both cell mediated as well as humoral response in dogs.

Cell Mediated Response Include:

• Daily doses of astaxanthin increased the response of the body to certain vaccines

• Astaxanthin increased lymphocyte proliferation

• Absorption of natural astaxanthin by leukocytes protects the cells from free radical attack

• Astaxanthin increased NK cell cytotoxic activity

• Changes in mitochondrial or plasma membrane functions can influence cell mediated response. Studies show that 35%-50% astaxanthin localizes in the mitochondria. This helps boost cell mediated immune response.

Humoral Response Included:

• An increase in IgG (antibodies produced in response to antigens) both before and after vaccination

• Astaxanthin lowered the concentration of circulating CRPs (C-reactive proteins, which increase in response to infection or inflammation from tissue necrosis).

References

1. Chew B. P et.al Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathy, 2011.

2. Mars- Chew B.P, Hayek M.G and Park J.S US patent no: 20040151761, 2004

3. Chris C. Pinney, The complete veterinary guide, 2004

4. Kristen Mehus-Roe, Dog Bible, 2nd edition, 2009

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Astaxanthin & Our Pet's Eyes

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Canine Vision and Astaxanthin



Eyesight is one of the key senses for acquiring information from the outside world. The canine eye is adapted for excellent night vision, depth perception, and a total visual field of 250 degrees. The eye components are similar to humans, the cornea, pupil, iris, lens, retina and optic nerve. Dogs, like humans, experience eye related difficulties with aging.

The lens changes shape to adjust the focal distance of the object and works together with the cornea to refract light. The retina consists of photoreceptors the rods and cones and has the function to transmit light as electrical impulses through the optic nerve. The brain then recognizes these objects as images.

Conjunctivitis, dry eye, cataracts, glaucoma, retinal degeneration and cloudy lens (nuclear sclerosis) are common eye problems with age. All conditions are associated with either the lens or the retina and its receptor cells and most often are the result of inflammation due to oxidative stress. The ocular surface is exposed to environmentally induced reactive oxygen species from UV and pollution. Oxidative stress is the accumulation of radical oxygen species in the mitochondria resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction.

Antioxidants like vitamin C and E, lutein and zeaxanthin are some of the commonly known nutrients good for general eye health and vision for dogs, which support aging eyes prone to AMD (age related macular disease) and cataracts.

How Does Natural Astaxanthin Help in Eye Health for Dogs?

• With age, increased mitochondrial dysfunction occurs along with increased production of free radicals and a reduction in the endogenous antioxidant capacity. Natural astaxanthin is the most powerful antioxidant known to quench free radical species.

• Unlike other commonly known antioxidants, natural astaxanthin is known to cross the blood retinal barrier and reach the ocular tissues, like ciliary muscles and the retina.

• With age, there is an increase in clouding of the lens due to buildup of oxidized proteins, which leads to formation of cataracts that can lead to vision loss. Astaxanthin can help prevent this.

• The aging eye is also prone to retinal degeneration, influenced by oxidized lipids and proteins that build up over time. Retinal mitochondria are particularly concentrated in the retinal ganglion cells, which transfer information to the brain. Dog food supplemented with natural astaxanthin is known to improve electroretinography levels, measurements for retinal function and better the refractive index error, which helps to judge the ability of the lens to focus.

• Conditions such as glaucoma are initiated when immune cells in the eye known as microglial cells in aging dogs become over active leading to chronic inflammation. This causes oxidative stress in the retina, leading to neuronal degeneration over time. Natural astaxanthin has anti-inflammatory properties that have shown to reduce inflammation signals from aging microglial cells, supporting healthy vision in aging dogs. Astaxanthin can also combat oxidative stress triggered by inflammation to promote antioxidant balance in the eye.

• In dry eye disease, decreased tear production, triggers inflammation which affects the cornea and conjunctiva, leading to red and irritated eyes. Natural astaxanthin in combination with other natural products is seen to increase tear production and combat inflammation to support and comfort eyes.

References

1. W. Wang et.al, Journal of Nutritional Science, 2016

2. T. Chen et. al, Veterinary Ophtalmology, 2015

3. N. N. Osborne, et.al, Drug Discovery Today, 2014

4. P. S. M. Barros, et.al, Brazilian Jour. of Med and Bio Research, 2003

5. S. Destefanis, et.al, BMC Veterinary Research, 2016

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Astaxanthin & Pet Growth & Endurance

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

Working Dogs: Natural Astaxanthin Supports Growth and Muscle Endurance



Dogs assist their human companions with lots of physically demanding jobs, as hunting dogs, police dogs or search and rescue dogs, to name a few. Hunting for sustenance together with human companions was one of the first jobs at which dogs became proficient. Today hunting dogs are active as ever, hunting everything from fowl to truffles. Police dogs serve to pursue suspects and sniff out banned substances. Search and rescue dogs assist with lost hikers and victims caught in natural or man-made disasters. Unlike companion dogs, working dogs are distinct breeds who are at their best, performing high endurance activities. A high endurance dog will undergo several physiological changes during and after exercise.

During exercise, metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids provides energy. These nutrients can be metabolized during aerobic or anaerobic pathways, and dogs can meet their energy needs by switching between different forms of energy production to best leverage all these nutrients. Carbohydrates and lipids are the primary source of energy during exercise. However, carbohydrates burn fast, and once carbohydrates in muscle are used up, the body needs to switch to the anaerobic pathway; drawing from reserves in the liver. High endurance exercise largely depends on lipids for sustained energy from the aerobic pathway. While the aerobic pathway produces energy more efficiently, it also produces free radical byproducts that can accumulate, causing oxidative stress, and impairing energy production over time.

After exercise, nutrient supplies must be restored and muscles must be repaired and remodeled to ensure top performance. To replenish carbohydrate stores, glucose absorption in muscle is enhanced after exercise, which is why a recovery supplement after exercise which will help in proper utilization of energy sources could help working dogs bounce back faster after exertion.

How Does Natural Astaxanthin Help Sustain Muscle Endurance in Dogs?

In a study examining recovery from exercise in 3 groups of exercise conditioned Husky Pointer dogs, one group was a control group who was given no post-exercise supplement, the second was fed a recovery supplement containing carbohydrates and protein immediately after exercise, while the third group was fed a recovery supplement that also included natural astaxanthin. The control and plain recovery meal groups both saw about a 30% drop in plasma glucose levels after exercise. While the plain recovery meal did help dogs replenish plasma glucose faster after exercise, the astaxanthin group had no exercise induced decrease in plasma glucose levels at all after exercise. This shows that astaxanthin can support carbohydrate sparing, with plasma glucose levels remaining stable before and after exercise for better endurance and recovery.

An AstaReal study examined the effect of natural astaxanthin on 14 six-month old Scandinavian puppies who were trained for high endurance exercise from the age 16 through 32 weeks. One group of 7 dogs was fed premium dog food, while the second group of 7 dogs were fed premium dog food supplemented with AstaReal® Astaxanthin. The AstaReal® Astaxanthin group showed steady increase in growth and thigh size in comparison to the group givenpremium dog food alone, and also improved immunity and maintained a steady heart rate during high endurance exercise.

Studies have shown that natural astaxanthin supports fat utilization for energy, which promotes endurance. Additional studies have also demonstrated that natural astaxanthin can support muscle recovery from exercise in working dogs, making natural Astaxanthin an important nutrient for active dogs who need to maintain sustained energy and quickly restore muscles strength after exercise.

References

1. Zanghi et.al, American Journal of Veterinary Research, 2015.

2. Chris C. Pinney, The complete veterinary guide, 2004

3. Kristen Mehus-Roe, Dog Bible, 2nd edition, 2009

4. Nestle - Monique Y. Sidebottom and Arleigh J. Reynolds, US Patent: 8034372, 2004

5. Marco et. al Fuji Chemical Industries (unpublished)

6. Aoi et. al, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2008

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YouTube Videos on Astaxanthin

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Dr. Robert Corish Talks About Astaxanthin

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Astaxanthin = Astaxanthin...Right?

Research provided by: AstaReal USA

You might think that all astaxanthin is created equal. When we go shopping for supplements, we expect that they are all held under the same scrutiny that the food we eat and water we drink is held under. Unfortunately, this is not the case.

Knowing the country of origin for your astaxanthin is extremely important. Some countries do not regulate or have nearly the scrutiny that the United States of America has in regards to natural astaxanthin supplements.

Since astaxanthin is a usually found in nature, it, like many other natural products, is affected by its environment. When the air and water that the astaxanthin is grown in is contaminated by external factors such as airplane exhaust and environmental contaminants it degrades the astaxanthin quality.

How do I know that the astaxanthin I’m taking is free of these contaminants?

Some astaxanthin manufactures claim they are “Made in the USA” whereas in fact they import their raw astaxanthin material from overseas. They do extract their astaxanthin in the USA, but since there is very little regulation in the quality control from overseas raw astaxanthin, contaminants remain. There is no way to remove the contaminants completely in the end product for the consumer.

We encourage all astaxanthin users to know where their astaxanthin is produced from the beginning to end. There are only a handful of companies that produce, cultivate, and manufacture astaxanthin 100% in the USA.

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